She resorted to desperate measures to save her four lackluster sons from disaster—she failed!
Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) was granddaughter of Lorenzo de Medici. She married the second son of Francis I, later King Henry II of France, in 1533. She allied herself with the Catholic party during the Wars of Religion and took part in planning the massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day in 1572. Her efforts to maintain the peace were constantly thwarted by fighting between Catholic and Protestant factions. Her dominant role in French politics came to naught in the end, when her Valois dynasty was replaced by the Bourbons.