Portrait by artist-historian George Stuart. Courtesy George S. Stuart.
Handsome, ruthless and cunning; he dominated his father’s papacy.
Cesare’s ruthless determination to always be a “winner” and his lust for revenge was paired with an innate regard for ‘justice’ and order. His nature turned pathological at times and may have been the result of venereal disease. He was Machiavelli’s model for his ideal ruler, “The Prince.”