Ivan Ivan IV the Terrible.
The first to be crowned “Tsar” of Russia, Ivan IV of Russia ruled from age 17 until his death. Although intelligent, able, and a natural leader, Ivan’s was a complex, extreme personality, at times close to insanity, his life filled with tragedy. Killed his son with his staff. Russian history indicates that Ivan IV was also a national hero, claiming the loyalty and devotion of his people.
Upper right image shows close-up of his golden robe adorned with jewels and hagiography. Upper left, closeup of jeweled Monomakh's Cap (Shapka Monomakha) or Golden Cap (Shapka Zolotaya), with sable lining, worn by Ivan IV and all Muscovite Princes and Tsars.
Portrait by artist-historian George Stuart.
Courtesy Mini Time Machine Museum.
Images © copyright by Peter d'Aprix