The first and most terrible Tsar!
Isolated and abused as a child, Ivan turned into a violent and vengeful youth. As a man his career ranged from effective administration and successful military campaigns to manic bouts of terrible brutality and slaughter. He ended his life hiding away from the world, deep in paranoia and despair.
Portrait by artist-historian George Stuart.
Courtesy George S. Stuart.
Images © copyright by Peter d'Aprix