A Bourbon Princess, she was wed by proxy to Charles I of England in 1625 shortly after his accession. Initially their relationship was distant, due mainly to her husband’s closeness to the Duke of Buckingham. After George Villiers (Buckingham) was murdered, she and the King formed a deep bond of love and affection. Her unpopular Roman Catholicism caused conflict with courtiers and the public alike. The policies of the King and Parliament were in direct opposition, leading to civil war and execution of Charles I in 1649. Henrietta Maria fled to France. When the monarchy was resurrected in 1660, her son returned to rule as Charles II.